The report presents a synthesis of the three Inter-Agency Humanitarian Evaluations conducted - in the Philippines (2014), South Sudan (2015) and Central African Republic (2015) - seeking to identify key themes, good practices, and challenges encountered by the humanitarian system in responding to large-scale humanitarian crisis.
The three IAHEs hold a critical mirror up to the attempts to deliver coordinated humanitarian responses according to the IASC-approved structures, processes and policies, often with limited resources and within extremely difficult operating environments. In this regard, the common topics discussed in the report are Needs Assessment, Strategic Planning, Coordiantion models and mechanisms, the Enagement of national and local stakeholders and last but not least the concept of a Level 3 emergency and the implications for empowered leadership.
The Central African Republic (CAR) has been characterized by multiple overlapping crises combining a long history of military coups and rebellions. This situation has caused a sustained economic crisis that has eroded the country’s capacity to provide basic services and protection to its people. Since December 2012 the country has been the stage of widespread insecurity with attacks against the former government which led to its destitution by the Seleka coalition in March 2013. Under the Seleka rule (March 2013 - January 2014) bad governance worsened, the regime abused power for self-enrichment and plundered public funds eventually leading to the collapse of the economy. Violence against civilians soared and retaliation by anti-Balaka militia against the Seleka rebels further instigated gross human rights violations causing one of the most serious humanitarian and protection crises faced by the international community. Security conditions in the country further deteriorated in early December 2013, when fighting erupted between the ex- Séléka alliance and anti-Balaka groups, composed of armed fighters that oppose ex-Séléka forces, and forced out the government of ex-Seleka leader, Michel Djotodia.
The violence has led to the displacement of over a million Central Africans, approximately 25 per cent of CAR's population. In March 2015, there were 436,000 IDPs in CAR - including 49,000 in 34 sites in Bangui - and 2.7 million people (over half of CAR’s population) need humanitarian assistance.
On 11 December 2013, the crisis in CAR was declared an L3 emergency.
The final evaluation report was issued in September 2016.
On the 8th of November 2013, typhoon Haiyan (known locally as Yolanda) made landfall in the Philippines. The typhoon left around 4 million people homeless, and killed another 6,000. People living in the Philippines already suffered high levels of poverty. Following the typhoon, a large global-scale emergency (L3) was declared. A Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) was deployed to the Philippines, where they drafted an initial Humanitarian Action Plan. On the 10th of December, a Strategic Response Plan (SRP) covering 12 months was released, which provided direction for the rest of the response. The overall goal of the SRP was that communities and local governments recovered from the disaster, built back safer and avoided relapses, while strengthening resilience. The SRP was intended to be a 12-month plan, but largely in response to the Government of the Philippines’ announcement of the end of the humanitarian phase of the Haiyan response, the HCT took a decision to close the SRP on 31 August 2014. By the time of its closure, $468 million had been received against the plan, making it 60.2% covered.
The final evaluation report of the Haiyan response in the Philippines was issued in October 2014.
The conflict that began in December 2013 in South Sudan continues to affect the lives of millions of people. It has been marked by brutal violence against civilians and deepening suffering across the country. Insecurity and active hostilities constrain civilians’ freedom of movement. The major humanitarian consequences are widespread displacement due to the violence; high rates of death, disease, and injuries, severe food insecurity and disrupted livelihoods, and a major malnutrition crisis. South Sudan was declared an L3 emergency on February 11, 2014.
The final evaluation report of the response to the crisis in South Sudan was issued in March 2016.
On 15 January 2013, the Emergency Relief Coordinator activated a system-wide Level 3 response to the Syria crisis, which triggered a number of activities, including the mandatory conduct of an Inter-Agency Humanitarian Evaluation (IAHE) within 15 months of the L-3 declaration. However, given the regional dimension of the Syria crisis, its complex political nature and the ongoing conflict, the IAHE Steering Group decided to initiate a joint evaluative effort in lieu of an IAHE. To this end, the Syria CALL Initiative was launched.
To date, the Syria CALL constitutes a unique effort to present an overall picture of the evaluative work conducted by various humanitarian actors of the response to the Syria crisis.
The following activities have been conducted under the Syria CALL initiative to date:
-The Syria Learning Portal (www.syrialearning.org), hosted by ALNAP, is as a central repository of documents on the Syria crisis response, including monitoring reports, reviews, evaluations and other type of studies. Documents are accessible from the Portal for anyone interested. With over 300 documents collected, the Portal has proved an effective tool to facilitate access to a large number of documents on the Syria crisis from a single entry point, and to support other activities under the Syria CALL.
-The Syria CALL Common Context Analysis (CCA) 2014 presents an analysis of the most significant political and humanitarian events that have recently taken place in Syria and the region. Given the fast pace of the Syria crisis, a second report, providing an update of the Common Context Analysis was prepared in 2015 to provide an account of the humanitarian and political events taking place between June 2014 and August 2015. The two CCA reports have been widely cited in other research and studies on the Syria crisis.
- Using the documents collected in the Portal, a mapping exercise identified evaluative materials and offered an overview of evaluation activity on the Syria crisis. These evaluation materials have been used to prepare the Syria CALL Evaluation Synthesis and Gap Analysis (2016). The synthesis report provides an analysis of recurrent themes, common findings and gaps from 24 publically available evaluative exercises from a wide-range of humanitarian organizations, which, taken together, account for the majority of the total humanitarian expenditure to date.
Day-to-day management to the Syria CALL initiative is provided by a Management Group composed by OCHA, UNICEF, WFP, UNHCR and ALNAP. Overall leadership and strategic direction is provided by the IAHE Steering Group.