Although disasters are quick to strike, their consequences can linger for months and years. In disasters, responders did not always think through how human rights may be affected by their interventions. All too often the human rights of disaster victims are not sufficiently taken into account. These violations could be avoided if both national and international actors took the relevant human rights guarantees into account from the beginning. Thus, there is a need to raise awareness and implement human rights approaches through guidelines.
The guidelines focus on what humanitarian actors should do to implement a human rights-based approach to humanitarian action in natural disasters. Human rights are the legal underpinnings of all humanitarian work in to natural disasters.
The guidelines consist of three parts:
1) Part one explains the notion and implications of human rights protection in situations of natural disaster and the meaning of a human rights-based approach to disaster relief
2) Part two presents the main human rights principles relevant in situations of natural disaster, and how to implement them
3) Part three addresses the special rights and needs of vulnerable groups, for example: women, children, older persons and persons with disabilities
In recognition of the growing impact of natural disasters, both large-scale and those that do not make the headlines but nonetheless have a significant impact on the lives and livelihoods of developing countries, the IASC partners have compiled a tool for in-country partners to assess their level of preparedness, identify priority areas to address with regular or specific programmes and/or to establish a Disaster Management Team (or a similar IASC-partnership wide body). The purpose of this tool is to encourage IASC in-country teams to embark on a process that will gradually increase their capacities to respond to the challenge of providing host governments with prompt, effective and concerted country-level support in disaster preparedness and response.
Ten areas of preparedness were identified at the formulation stage as critical elements of a good response preparedness plan: 1) Inventory of national capacities, allowing the IASC in-country team to determine the legal and institutional framework, national strengths and weaknesses 2) IASC in-country team awareness 3) Hazard identification, monitoring and warning 4) Vulnerability assessment 5) Contingency planning 6) IASC in-country capacity inventory: human, financial and material resources 7) Logistics/IT/Communication 8) Partnerships 9) Coordination arrangements 10) Human resources and training requirements
In most humanitarian emergencies (complex and natural) the UN agencies and the members of the international humanitarian community responding to the disaster will encounter armed actors. Now more than ever, there are likely to be multiple types of forces: foreign, international or multinational forces. When such actors are present there are significant coordination challenges in the realms of security, medical evacuation, logistics, transport, communications, information management, etc.
This concept paper describes when and how UN Civil-Military Coordination Officers are to be mobilized, deployed and employed in emergencies where there is likely to be a need for the humanitarian community to coordinate with military forces and to protect humanitarian space. The document contains mechanisms for triggering deployment, reporting lines and authority, the role of UN Civil-Military Coordination officers and scope of activities. These activities include structures, location and staffing, and finally transition strategy.